The Encoded Pattern

Hajj Abdallah Luongo

PCBs, polychlorinated biphenyls, were supposed to be an inert substance that would not react with other chemicals. This inherent quality, along with that of being resistant to heat, flame and electrical charge, made them extremely employable and offered tremendous opportunities for their use.

PCBs are, in fact, only one of numerous compounds known as organochlorines, some of which gained great notoriety, such as DDT and DES, which, although no longer in use within Europe and the United States, have long term effects that remain active in our environment. Nevertheless, products such as DDT are still widely used in 'developing' countries that have been sold substantial quantities of them, and do not impose restrictions on their use. Of all the multifarious uses of the organochlorines, what binds them together is that they are all highly commercial.

A substantial and indefeasible amount of research confirms that a myriad of man-made chemicals that are present in literally hundreds of products that are consumed by people every day, act like 'weak oestrogens', i.e., imitating the female hormone. Among the most active of these substances are those known as PCBs, which are found in nearly all plastics and in many agri-chemicals used in modern intensive farming. While it is known that lesser amounts of herbicides, pesticides and fertilizers are used in the development of 'genetically modified' seed growth, it also remains true that more concentrated amounts ofthose specific compounds that either mimic oestrogens or act as oestrogen triggers (or keys, as some scientists prefer to describe them), are necessary to activate the wonder seeds. These compounds, previously thought to be inert, are, as it turns out, lipophilic and, therefore, are easily absorbed into the fatty tissue of fish and sea mammals, and have entered the human food chain through the diets of people who consume them. From the Inuit Indians (far removed from technology) to children born to sport fishermen in Wisconsin, extreme abnormalities have been found in the sex organs of new-born male children, as well as the rise of testicular cancer in young men born after 1950 and a 50% drop in sperm count of all males in the same period. Directly affected by the 'weak oestrogens' are the sertoli cells, which are formed in the testes while in the womb, and affect not only the future size of the testicles but the actual sperm count itself.

Inspired by a four-part series from the London Guardian that dealt with the impending domination of the entire food production industry in the foreseeable future by three or four agri-chemical giants (led by the US firm Monsanto), I began to explore the binary relationship between the startling process of feminization, and the politically and socially emasculated modern economic man, and to then identify their shared common denominator that functions as the de-generative drive within the current economic system.

Monsanto, which is but one corporation that currently holds trade patents for a growing number of 'genetically modified' seeds, legally binds its customers (the farmers that use them) to only use their herbicide, Roundup. Together with their line of fertilizers (growthhormones) and pesticides, the pharmaceutical giant offers a complete package to the growers. The 'purchase-contract' forbids the farmers to sell or trade any of the seed, before or after germination to any third party, while it must allow regular inspections of their farming procedures for a three year period after the purchase date of the seed product. Due to the specific nature of the seeds themselves, they are not capable of germinating from one season's harvest to (be used for planting in) the next. The simplest solution is that new seeds, which are Roundup Ready, can be easily purchased for the next growing period.

The herbicides, pesticides and 'growth' fertilizers are themselves highly soluble and easily absorbed when introduced at the appropriate points in the growing cycle. This fool-proof formula has been provided by a highly reputable group of people who have not only given their full assurance that their products are completely safe, but will eliminate world hunger and, naturally, guarantee increased shareholder profits. It is easy to recognise those who say: 'why, we are only putting things right'. (Quran:2:11)

The primary source for the scientific material on feminization, or more appropriately, the de-masculinization of the male species, has been The Feminization of Nature by Deborah Cadbury, while secondary sources include Future Plagues by Peter Brookesmith, Our Stolen Future by Colborn and Dumanosky and the special series published in the Guardian (December 15-18, 1997).

The bridging between scientific medical data on the oestrogen-mimics and physiology comes from an ongoing dialogue with Dr. Muhammad Dalmau, a leading physician, who is engaged in research into 'the pathology of illness' and is the author of The Politics of Medicine (the title of a paper he delivered in the Andalusian capital of Granada at an international conference on Islamic Fiqh (the science of the application of Shari'a) in 1992). Dr. Dalmau, Director of the Highland Islamic Clinic and Bio-Medical Research Foundation in Inverness, Scotland, demonstrates that the nature of Shari'a is that it preserves and sustains the encoded genetic pattern that identifies itself as 'health', rather than, as commonly perceived, being an externally imposed moral code that would seem to operate on the individual human, and by extension, social body, from outside. "Shari'a is the instruction manual, the life-pattern, for man in society. It sets up the parameters for social transactions within which a society can be just, and, therefore, create both wealth and health. The unfolding of Shari'a establishes social harmony, and it is by that act that it becomes implicitly moral." While it is indisputable that Shari'a is 'commanded', such as the collecting and distributing of Zakat (the missing or fallen pillar of Islam) by the 'order' of an amir, it is absolutely clear that the source of the 'commanding' and 'ordering' is an externalizing of an inherent code (that we recognize as something that we know) that is itself commanded by the Divine. Zakat, a wealth-tax to assist the poor, [the only tax that a Muslim must pay] with clear and specific limits on the amounts that are to be collected and for what purposes it can be used, is an essential practice, and as inseparable from the health of a society as hygiene is from the health of the human body. When going more deeply into the function of DNA, which "is an encoded set of commands, containing essential information," Dr. Dalmau says: "That is what Shari'a is. This is non-negotiable " A corner is turned from genetic breakdown to the deterioration of the social organism.

I do not want to belabor 'what is not Islam', but some form of qualifying statement must be made at the outset of this exploratory work. In order not to be completely stymied we must, in our mentioning or in any way thinking about Islam, politely put aside the Arabs, at least for now. As for the Iranians, who are nearly all Shi'a, which is a particular condition, and one that can be recognized as an aberrant virus that has, undeniably, entered into the body politic of the Muslims, they are quite simply outside of the frame of this inquiry. The origin of the strain; when and how it spread; and what is the defense against it; is a subject of study in and of itself. The least that can be said without digressing is that the thinking that is Shi'a is also, unmistakably, now to be found in the camp that calls itself Sunni. The malaise of the Muslim umma (community) is, according to this diagnosis, in having lost its Islam, while retaining an amorphous, albeit at times strong, faith. Faith, in this sense gives off the tone of Christian connotation, and departs from the clearly defined inner landscape that constitutes 'iman', so often inadequately translated as faith. This diagnosis in no way denies the resurgent struggle for survival and ultimately success that is taking place within the body as a whole.

Getting drawn into negative criticism only serves to weaken the casting of thought, and results in falling short of the mark. What is entirely positive is that the much-needed cure is not only possible but is most probable to occur at the hands of people for whom justice is more attractive than the temptation of 'jobs'. When 'jobs', always in short supply we are told, are dangled in front of people instead of justice, then this is not only culpable but certainly criminal. The hook on which the bait is attached is fear of provision, itself the result of an incorrect thinking about the nature of Existence. Unfortunately this supreme ignorance has been perpetrated upon people, and further exasperated by misguided leaders.

A BASIC THEME can be recognized as the 'political imperatives implied in the creation of a neuter class society as the "ideal" of liberal democracy, whose motor-force is usury-capitalism'. A short clip from The Cult of the Child, extrapolated from the intense images of Wyndham Lewis: painter, novelist and quite brilliant essayist of the 1920s into the 1990s, would portray the ideal citizen of the New World as an existential child for whom sex is stripped of its dimension of power, tenderness and responsibility, and is then marketed as available gratification for the 'full-grown' children. Private individual freedom becomes the gift of the State in exchange for the loss of political and economic autonomy, already an abstruse and rather meaningless concept when presented to someone with the gratification-impulse of an unrestrained child who can legally do whatever they want. The distinguishing characteristics between differing groups within this New Society are noticeably ones of fashion, while economic disparity will tend to be overlooked. What people will all share is debt and the belief that they are all helpless (as children) to effect the world within which they are cast: their recourse is to pursue amusement, for which credit is the means.

Usury-capitalism is the recognized common factor in the equation between modern intensive pharming techniques, with the high intake of pharmaceuticals, and the startling evidence of the genetically modifying effects (de-masculinization) caused by those agri-chemicals, as well as the key factor in the formation of a neuter citizen debtor who takes the passive role in the sex inversion play with the 'creators of money', the banking oligarchy who maintain the monopoly 'rights' on the creation of credit and their legal privilege to insert it into the society. The popularly elected democratic State sanctions the practice of bankism (which pays their salaries) over and against a just approach to agriculture, industry and trade, and also politically brings together, by legislative approval, the economic interests of the pharmaceutical companies in the growing and packaging (the plastics, nonylphenols, are proven to leach into the food products) of the world's food supply with the universally recognized passive consumer. What specifically is meant by a 'just approach to agriculture, industry and trade' and what could be their relationship to Shari'a and the assertion that it is nothing less "than physiological behavior, the natural foundation of a healthy society, a form of total hygiene," is the challenge that the work of Dr. Dalmau and his medical colleagues, and the radical understanding of usury-free economic practice, has opened up before us.

AS MIGHT BE EXPECTED, there is some resistance to the 'big business' chemical companies being put-up in the form of protest, which is often staged by those for whom the politically correct career choice would be to get paid by the Government for being good samaritans. One such demonstration took place with a group of nude protesters crawling over the outside of the office building of an ad agency in England that was running a campaign for a producer of genetically modified food products. This display must have brought the multinationals to their knees.

The kind of example that would be used to flaunt the relationship between a phamaceutical giant, such as Monsanto (with a market capitalization of $26.7 billion), and Government could be simply to point to Margaret Miller, a Monsanto 'researcher' and Michael Taylor, a Monsanto 'lawyer'. They both received political appointments under the Clinton Administration to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) after a major contribution was made by Monsanto to Clinton's Re-Election Campaign Fund. Their jobs were, among others, one may presume, to review requests by Monsanto to gain approval for their new and convincingly lucrative product line of genetically modified soya that was to be mixed with conventional soya (now a nightmare for EU regulators); to approve the formulas and register the patents for several of Monsanto's new designer seeds, including those for rice and wheat that are currently under cultivation in 'developing countries' by Monsanto; and to legally block the labeling of genetically modified ingredients as "a discriminatory, biased and un-fair trade practice within the bylaws of the Advertising Industry". [After intense opposition Monsanto has recently reversed its position on the issue of 'labeling' for the European market.] They were also able to gain permission to use the terms 'organic' and 'environmentally friendly' on the packaging of Monsanto's flagship product Roundup, while they have had to be removed from the packaging on the tons that are sold each year in Britain. The 'revolving door policy' is one thing in Washington that has no trouble working. Those in the know say that Bob Shapiro, the head of the $9 billion a year Monsanto, based in Missouri, has made the FDA his Washington office. Shapiro, who describes himself as a "liberal concerned about ecology and the environment", has hired one of the largest advertising agencies in the world, Burson Marsteller and also the British firm Bartle Bogle Hegarty, to handle 'damage control' for his company's products that are finding difficulty in their being accepted in parts of Europe. Bob's liberal and environmentally conscious views, cultivated during his education at Harvard, gives him the appearance of a university professor and, according to his spin-doctors, "he has demonstrated his desire to have an open dialogue with Greens and other consumer groups in Europe."

SIDI UMAR VADILLO, the political leader of the Murabitun and the most important authority on Islamic economics in this time, takes, by Shari'a, the position that: one, paper money represents a debt [clearly an incontrovertible promise to pay the bearer upon demand ...] which is impermissible as a medium of exchange, either by transferal or trading it in any way; two, it will inescapably change value [by inflation, deflation or devaluation]; and three, it is a monopoly by banks [who are able to create it ex nihil, i.e. out of nothing, as credit], and, therefore, is haram, meaning harmful, lacking benefit, forbidden. The root of usury is in the false money. Its effects on the social organism are all the recognizable symptoms of insurmountable debt, disease, crime and civil disruptions. Pick a spot anywhere on the globe, and you will see it: one pustular blister after another. Sidi Umar Vadillo has not only advocated the return to the (gold) Dinar and (silver) Dirham, but has, under the guidance of his shaykh, Shaykh Abdalqadir as-Sufi, initiated the minting of coins that are being introduced into circulation. According to Sidi Umar's prescription, the use of the coins are combined with the reintroduction of Islamic Contracts that require shared participation when involving either an investment or loan, and declare null and void all usurious contracts that only protect the bank as the issuer of paper in exchange for collateral assets of actual wealth. Islamic Trade gives preferential treatment to someone with a good idea (for a business) as opposed to someone with good collateral (who is currently preferred by standard banking practices). It also would make, for example, South America, with its abundant natural resources, rich, while it would bring down the Wall Street stock-brokers and investment bankers. If someone really does want to oppose Islam then they should do it for real and accurate reasons. These are the genetics of life.

WHAT IS THE SCIENCE that produces an environment within which the human condition is safe, and by revealing an encoded pattern opens the possibility of establishing a just society allowing free human beings not only to survive, but to achieve their highest possibilities? The question can only be answered by someone who knows not only the pathology of disease but the science of health and the road (the etymological root of the word shari'a) to it in this time.

That environment, within which people are safe, is one in which man as an encoded organism, capable of unlocking the full potential of his individual form, and likewise being part of a greater whole, a society, with its internal design, innate parameters, is capable of guarding against cellular decay and the devastating effects by the parthenogenetic growth of usury. Islam provides a means to this. It is undeniably up hill, heroic, against the stream, like the king salmon or the mighty titan fighting its way through that hostile canal.

AN ALARMING TREND, most visible in America, where so many trends are set, is that obesity has been recognized as the essential factor in young girls between the ages of four and eight reaching puberty. When this is connected to the abnormally aggressive sexual behavior of adolescent and pre-adolescent girls in industrialized societies, a clear relationship can be seen to the lack of Shari'a within those societies. The early puberty has been most visibly identified in pre-adolescent black girls in the US, whose body fat reaches unusually high levels too early and triggers the female hormone, or more frequently the case, the oestrogen mimicking compounds that we learnt are stored in the fatty tissue. The increased weight can be directly linked to 'high fat' diets of processed fast foods and high alcohol consumption, which are proven to have their strongest effect when transmitted through the womb or from breast milk, and which work upon the oestrogen metabolites that break down products containing or acting like oestrogens.

OESTROGENIC CHEMICALS found in nearly all plastics and numerous pesticides and fertilizers are dumped into rivers and seas; absorbed by fish and sea mammals; consumed by humans and redeposited as human waste (with the oestrogen effect intensified) into the environment. Natural oestrogen, oestradiol, remains active in a woman's body for a few hours or at most a few days, whereas synthetic oestrogens, diethylstilboestrol, DES, for example, which was extensively used in the late 1940s and early 1950s for women who had difficult pregnancies and was later found to cause horrifying birth defects, or the oestrogen-mimics, such as PCBs and other related compounds, can remain active for years and have been found to intensify in their effects as they recycle back into the food chain. It can be noted that as early as the 1930s it was known that oestrogen exposure could induce breast cancer. Nevertheless, it was ignored, and when the FDA in America was flooded with requests for commercial applications based upon the sensational findings in the 30s by the lauded British scientist Professor Dodds, approval soon followed. A plethora of miracle cures made from female animal hormones, ranging from anti-ageing potions to fertility elixers already existed from Dodds' findings. Curiously, an FDA official involved in the approval of DES, the first synthetic oestrogen, later became president of one of the first chemical companies to manufacture it.

Other examples, such as the chemical residue from the contraceptive pill (designed to block the ovulating process) have been detected in water supplies in Britain after having come through water treatment plants (used to treat domestic sewage). Remember this is not bacterial contamination, rather genetic, that has re-entered the food chain in fish and mammals in which drastic changes in the reproductive organs have been found. The exposure to PCBs and numerous other organochlorines has been directly linked to the appearance of micro phalluses in numerous fresh water and salt water wildlife as well as causing similar conditions in humans. Similar signs have also been found in areas where poultry had been injected with unusually high quantities of a female growth hormone, such as in Cuba in the early 1990s (New England Journal of Medicine), as part of a program designed by the WTO and UN to benefit underdeveloped countries, and where hermaphroditic children began to appear. It is enormously significant that all the synthetic oestrogens and oestrogen-mimics dramatically increase the growth of breast cancer cells, and have been identified as the leading hypothesis for the high increase in breast cancer, and is now the leading cause of death for women in the world.

If the driving force within the dominant society of today can be identified as usury-capitalism, then its underlying ideological doctrine can be recognized as one based upon humanist ideals (born out of the Reign of Terror) and the doctrine of tolerance, itself intolerant of any life transaction except what it accepts within its idea of tolerance. The fact that nearly all funding for the research on the effects of the pervasive use of chemicals in our environment comes from the chemical companies themselves is a proof in itself that kufr (the covering-up of the truth of existence) is one system. This is a society that is incapable of providing safety and care for its women and children. This is before we even mention rape, wife abuse, child abuse and all the heartbreaking traumas of life in modern (devastated) society.

with usura the line grows thick
with usura is no clear demarcation

from Canto XLV by Ezra Pound

THE BLURRING OF THE LINE brings about a political bias, and its continued ambiguity is ruthlessly enforced by the upholders of 'political correctness'. The phenomena of a modern man who is psychologically effeminate and politically emasculated, fulfills the form of the perfected ideal citizen, as, according to Plato, Democracy emerges as the prodigal child of a financial Oligarchy. He is, according to Plato, most often a pacifist, tolerant, and will tend to vacillate between excessive self-indulgence and extreme programs of physical fitness. He will speak out whatever thought comes into his head, thinking it very important, and will employ aggressive language in relation to making money. It is not surprising that Plato's Republic is no longer popular in modern classrooms. Ernst Jünger, the great German writer, states that "a man who has been equalized is physically and morally ruined."

Genetic disorder, the blurring of the line between man and woman, the inability of the male to reproduce, the appearance of a psychologically disempowered modern creature: passive, a debtor and politically impotent, is the degenerative movement from within the human cells through the Inferno of a modern hell. The opposite to this downward spiral would be seme in movimento, seed in motion, a motif for creative energy. Yet who will carry these thoughts forward as lamps to illuminate the world in which we live? What access can man have to the subtle tones of his heart if he is cut off from the encoded pattern that protects and sustains the natural condition of health?

From out of physiology: the biological science of essential and typical life processes, functions and processes, emerges the physiological: that which is characteristic of or in accord with the normal and healthy functioning of the living organism. Modern science, the secular religion of the day, can not, properly speaking, have a physiology because it does not possess a model of health. The absence, moreover the rejection, of any model is crucial to the doctrine 'that everything is relative' and the illusion of endless choice. The Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, carried the whole genetic history of the complete man. His sunna, literally practice, which in its (etymological) root means to form, is the genetics for life, the practice that forms, and is the model that can be copied. He, according to his noble wife Aisha, one of the perfected women, may God bless her and honor her name, when asked what he was like, said: "he was Qur'an walking." Everything we have said about Shari'a was in him. This was the final message to all mankind.

WHAT IS GERMANE to this topic is not the culpability of Monsanto or Genetech or DuPont, or even specifically the dangers of organochlorines and their role as hormone imitators. We could have quite as well looked at organophosphates, also used in agricultural chemicals, and now linked to the spread of BSE in British beef. It is more accurate to identify the false money as the common factor, even if we were to move from farming altogether to manufacturing. Manufacturing would also bring into focus the importance of the revival of the Guilds, and how they will work in our electronic age. The guilds in Islam are the alternative to the corporate structure that imposes a system of a limited number of employers with the vast majority of people being relegated to being employees or, the doom of all dooms, unemployed. The importance of the Guilds takes its place alongside the Open Market, usury-free contracts and the gold and silver coins that were briefly introduced through the work of Sidi Umar Vadillo. In emphasizing the importance of the coins, it should be seen that they, having intrinsic value, are not dependent on a 'state' to give them a symbolic value. Likewise, the Khalif, the essential and noticeably absent locus for the leadership of the greater community of the Muslims is not a king or president, but an entrusted and noble caretaker whose responsibility with regard to the coins is to guarantee that their weights and measures are correct, for which he is accountable by the Shari'a. Here again we see the matter returning to the Shari'a as the preserved pattern for social health. Nevertheless, we are not a people with a dialectic, however convincing the argument may be. Rather we are a people of obedience and trust.

There can be no such thing as someone thinking they can achieve personal well-being within the vacuum of a private experience (this is clinically a neurosis), without actively engaging in the political struggle to establish the Shari'a of Islam. The need to establish justice is inescapable and inexorably bound to manhood. The will to accomplish this will only be found where there are free men, or more accurately, free men and women. The respect and high esteem owed to women will not only fail to emerge if there are not men, but she will invariably be, as is the case, the victim of the infantile male. The real danger is, however, that having glimpsed an understanding of the true nature of this affair, and the identity of the real enemy, that we retreat into an occult fantasy that will accept the entire business as usual sickness. "The recovery of health is not," according to Dr. Muhammad Dalmau, "primarily a medical issue. It is a question of how we live, how we trade, how we worship and to whom we submit." The process by which we approach this understanding is based on recognition and affirmation (this constitutes what in Qur'anic terminology is shahada: to bear witness), followed by confirmation, through action ('amal). This science has its opposite, which brings the human being to dis-ease. It is the act of recognition followed by covering over that which the organism has recognized, which is kufr.



'War and courage have done more great things than charity. Not your pity but your bravery has saved the unfortunate up to now. 'What is good?' you ask. To be brave is good'.

Thus Spoke Zarathustra by Friedrich Nietzsche

Hajj Abdallah Luongo



Dinar: The Islamic Dinar is a coin of to 4.3 grams of 22 carat gold.

Dirham: The Islamic Dirham is a coin of 3.0 grams of silver

haram: unlawful in the Shari'a.

Highland Bio-Medical Research Foundation: A registered charity in Scotland, under the directorship of Dr. Muhammad Dalmau. The Highland Islamic Clinic is one of the medical projects of the Foundation. Fax number for the HBRF is : 01463-234546

Highland Islamic Clinic: The Clinic is open to the general public and has been serving the needs of a great number of people in the Highlands for the past five years. It is located near downtown Inverness. The phone number is 01463-226622, the e-mail:

kufr: to cover up the truth, disbelief, to reject Allah and refuse to believe that Muhammad is his Messenger.

Monsanto: The US chemical company that went from being orange to being green. The major manufacturer of Agent Orange during the Viet Nam War is now leading the way for what is marketed as the 'next green revolution'. Monsanto has more than three hundred pending lawsuits against American farmers who have violated the trade restrictions on their 'patented seeds' and have so far driven several farm into insolvency, that have been taken by the banks. As of November '98 Monsanto is following-up more than 2000 leads of other violators in the US alone. Outside the US Monsanto has called upon the US Government to lobby on its behalf by having them threaten to pull out of a potential free-trade agreement with New Zealand if it went ahead with a law that would require labeling and testing of genetically modified food. New Zealand backed down under the pressure.

Murabitun: A world wide organization of men and women who are actively committed to the re-establishment of Islam in this time. Its new web site is: http//

paper money: It is not a legal medium of exchange, rather it is a debt representing a merchandise, and conceals the greatest theft ever perpetrated as its value is able to be manipulated and the merchandise that it was meant to represent is non- existent.

parthenogenesis: (n) [Gk. parthenos, virgin + GENESIS] Reproduction of organisms without conjunction of gametes of opposite sexes. Parthenogenetic (adj) . We are mixing metaphors with the ' parthenogenetic growth of usury.' The relationship is made by the fact of having two transactions taking place, the act of selling and the act of buying, which constitute trade. When money, and in this case false money, is allowed to make money on it- self, then you have usury. "Allah has permitted trade and forbidden usury." (Qur'an: 2:227)

pharming: farming with pharmaceuticals (a word cocktail)

salla'llahu 'alaiyhi wa sallam: may Allah bless him and grant him peace, (the blessing following the mention of the Prophet Muhammad's name.)

Shahada: bearing witness, particularly bearing witness that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah. It is one of the pillars of Islam. It is also used for legal testimony in a court of law.

Shari'a: lit. road, the legal modality of a people based on the Revelation of their Prophet. The final Shari'a is that of Islam.

Shia: a splinter faction that developed during the early years of Islam that broke with the consensus of the people of knowledge and nearness to the Prophet by rejecting the leaders that were chosen to lead the Muslims. They opted for an occult interpretation of how rule would be passed on. Making any human being too imperfect to be accepted by them as the Khalif, they split from the body of the Muslims, developing into a theocracy run by a rabbinical caste that claim hereditary rights to govern and guide the people. This is in direct opposition to the statement by the Prophet, salla'llahu 'alaiyhi wa sallam, "There is no priesthood in Islam."

Sunni: the main body of Muslims who recognize and accept the first four Khalifs.

Umma: the body of Muslims as one distinct community.

usury: In Arabic the word is riba, which is haram whatever form it takes. It is a falsification of value, taking something for nothing, an unjustifiable increment of profit. It encompasses taking interest, deception, fraud, which means paper money.

Zakat: one of the five pillars of Islam. It is wealth tax paid on certain forms of wealth: gold and silver, staple crops, livestock and trading goods. There are very clear parameters on the distribution, to assure that the needy are helped and that expenditures for the general welfare of the people are met. Amongst the first Khalifs, they would not even use oil for their lamps from the oil that had come in as Zakat, if their visitor had come on a personal matter, rather than one that involved his duties as the Khalif of all the Muslims.


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